Line 3 Replacement Project
Petroleum products are an essential part of our everyday lives. They fuel our cars, heat our homes, power industry, schools and hospitals, and are turned into hundreds of consumer goods, from clothing to cosmetics to cellphones. But before those products materialize, crude oil must be refined into petroleum.
Built in the 1960s, Line 3 is a 1,097-mile crude oil pipeline extending from Edmonton, Alberta to Superior, Wisconsin, and is an integral part of Enbridge's Mainline System. Enbridge is proposing to replace Line 3 to maintain our high safety standards, reduce future maintenance activities and create fewer disruptions to landowners and the environment, and restore the historical operating capabilities of Line 3. A new 36-inch diameter pipeline will replace the existing 34-inch diameter pipeline along most of the Line 3 route. In the U.S., the replacement pipeline will follow Enbridge's existing Line 3 route from Joliette, North Dakota to Clearbrook, Minnesota, and then will primarily follow existing pipeline and transmission routes from Clearbrook to Superior, Wisconsin.
The $2.9-billion U.S. portion of the Line 3 Replacement Program, known as the Line 3 Replacement Project, consists of replacing existing 34-inch pipe with new 36-inch pipe for 13 miles in North Dakota, 337 miles in Minnesota, and 14 miles in Wisconsin:
- The Wisconsin segment of the project entered service in May 2018, after construction was completed in December 2017;
- Enbridge has secured all necessary permits for the North Dakota segment of the project;
- Enbridge expects to have certification for all remaining Minnesota permits required for construction by November 2019, with remaining federal permits expected to be finalized in the ensuing 30 to 60 days;
- Construction in Minnesota and North Dakota will begin concurrently, once all permits and approvals have been received;
- The remaining portion of the Line 3 Replacement Project is expected to enter service in the latter half of 2020.
Why Minnesota needs Line 3
Line 3 has been, and continues to be, an essential component of Enbridge’s pipeline transportation network to deliver the crude oil needed by refiners, and used by residents. The replacement of Line 3 will ensure that Enbridge can transport the crude oil required by refiners in Minnesota, neighboring states, Eastern Canada and the Gulf Coast. As with the existing Line 3, the Project will be operationally integrated as part of the Enbridge Mainline System and will continue to transport crude oil from Hardisty, Alberta, Canada to Superior, Wisconsin.
- Jobs: About 8,600 jobs (6,500 of them local) in Minnesota over a two-year period, including 4,200 union construction jobs, half of which are expected to be filled locally.
- Economic activity: A $2 billion boost to the Minnesota economy during design and construction, with $1.5 billion of that in Enbridge spending alone.
- Economic impact: About $334 million in payroll to workers (about 50% of that to local workers), and a $162-million construction-related gain for local economies, as a result of non-local workers in Minnesota, through purchase of local products/materials and use of local hotels, restaurants and services.
- Long-term property taxes: Increase property tax revenue in each county crossed by the Project. Enbridge pays more than $30 million in Minnesota property taxes annually ($56.5 million in 2018); this will increase incrementally by more than $35 million beginning the first full year of service.
- Support for Minnesota refineries: The Line 3 Replacement Project will reduce apportionment, and continue reliable crude oil delivery; and provide energy savings on a per-barrel basis.
(Final Line 3 Replacement Project route; click on map above for larger image)
The Minnesota Public Utilities Commission (PUC) has granted Enbridge a Certificate of Need and a Route Permit for Line 3 replacement.
On March 1, 2019, the State of Minnesota provided Enbridge schedules and timelines for the full review of remaining permits, including stakeholder input, to be completed by November 2019:
- The remaining Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) schedule of permits and licenses can be found here, and includes:
- Utility License to Cross State Land
- Utility License to Cross Public Water
- Public Waters Work Permits
- Water Appropriation Permits
- Calcareous Fen Management Plan
- Threatened and Endangered Species Takings Permit
- The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency application processing schedule can be found here, and includes:
- Water Quality Certification
- Construction Storm Water Permit
- Hydrotest Discharge Water Permit
- Air Permit
Other remaining permits and certifications include:
- U.S. Army Corps of Engineers:
- Section 404/10 (Wetland and Water Body Crossing Permit)
- Section 408 Request: (Cross Civil Work Permit)
- Tribal permits and certifications:
- Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Water Quality Certification
- Fond Du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Wetland Permit
The remaining environmental permits listed above relate to how the pipeline will be constructed; these 20-plus State of Minnesota and federal permits will ensure the protection of cultural resources, water, land and wildlife during construction.
Some of these permits are specifically about water protection. Pipelines, by nature, are like other transportation infrastructure. Concerns about water are limited to dewatering the project site and storm water management. Unlike mines, paper plants or other industrial applications, water is not part of an ongoing process that requires treatment and monitoring.
During construction, we will work temporarily in wetlands and water bodies, pump water out of ditches, and use water to pressure test the new pipeline. The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency makes sure that potential impacts are defined and managed. We will also be increasing our operations at Clearbrook Terminal, which impacts our air permit.